When Edward Humes started out to write a book about America's trash legacy he thought the number was closer to 64 tons -- but while researching the book he found that the real number was much, much higher. In fact, the average person throws out close to 7 pounds of garbage each day.
Garbology takes a close look at how (and why) we throw so much away, what alternatives exist, and what it all means.
Surprisingly, while Humes takes what you would think would be the non-controversial position that "waste is bad," he points out that there's actually plenty of space in the US to bury all the trash we generate... over the next thousand years.
All we need to do is find neighborhoods that want to put up with enormous landfills. Good luck with that.
Another surprising fact? Almost nothing that goes into modern sanitary landfills decomposes. You can read newspapers that were thrown away 50 years ago, and identify food items that were dumped in more than a decade ago.
Landfills essentially preserve items indefinitely by smushing everything together and kind of mummifying the remains of plastic bags, food scraps, and even toxic materials such as battery acid and half-full paint cans.
The good news is that toxic chemicals don't leach out of landfills at nearly the rate that was once expected. The bad news is that they're still in there and it means problems associated with improper disposal of hazardous materials is just a long-term problem now instead of a short term one.
In the first half of Garbology, Humes identifies and describes the problems that lead to our 102 ton per person trash legacy, and in the second half he looks at partial solutions including trash-to-energy facilities that burn trash to create electricity (they're cleaner than they used to be, but wildly unpopular in the US), and ways individuals can reduce their own footprints.
Like other Humes books I've read, Garbology is a very readable volume, thanks to the author's method of combining statistics and facts with anecdotes and profiles of individuals including one of the first "garbologists" who applied archaeological research techniques to modern-day garbage and a family that lives a nearly zero-waste lifestyle by rejecting virtually every product that comes in a package, among other things.
On the one hand, Garbology is the kind of book that can make you feel very guilty about your life choices... on the other hand, maybe that's not such a bad thing.
While I doubt I'll be going zero-waste anytime soon, I've already decided to make a few changes. For years I've taken reusable shopping bags on trips to the grocery store or farmers market. But the bulk foods area at Whole Foods has always been my weak spot -- because I've found myself grabbing thin plastic bags and filling them up with rice, oatmeal, quinoa, and other grains on nearly every trip.
These bags are meant to be used once for the few minutes it takes to get the food home, but they'll survive in landfills for thousands of years.
So this week I ordered a half dozen reusable bulk food/produce bags.
I also learned recently that Whole Foods (and some other grocery stores) will let you fill up your own mason jars at the store. You just need to visit the customer service area first to find out the weight of your empty jars so you can have that weight subtracted when you check out. This feels a little more stressful to me than using the reusable nylon bags, which are so light that you don't really need to bother weighing them at all. But I might work my way up to the mason jar solution in the future.
It was a throwaway example in the book, but Humes also pointed out that potato chip bags will last for thousands of years in landfills. The same is probably true of candy bar wrappers, pretzel bags, and thousands of other items we throw away -- but that one little example inspired me to do something I've been meaning to do ever since I figured out how easy it is to make french fries at home by slicing whole potatoes and baking them in a little oil.
I picked up a cheap mandolin slicer for $14.99 and started making my own potato chips from scratch. All you have to do is take thinly sliced pieces of potato, dip both sides in oil, arrange them on a baking sheet, and cook at about 375 degrees for 20 minutes.
The resulting chips taste better than almost anything I've ever fished out of a bag, there's less waste associated, and most of the potatoes in our house didn't travel very far to get here. We pick them up from the local farmers market when they're in season.
And there's no bag to throw away.
Reducing plastic bags and potato chip bags won't save the world from trash. But if everyone thought a little more about the packaging that comes with the products they bought maybe there wouldn't be so many items (like plastic shopping bags) manufactured to be used just once and then thrown away.